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Overview of CNC Machining Process Posted by: ffuutty150 - 17 minutes ago - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

Overview of CNC Machining Process


Evolving from the numerical control (NC) machining process which utilized punched tape cards, CNC machiningis a manufacturing process which utilizes computerized controls to operate and manipulate machine and cutting tools to shape stock material—e.g., metal, plastic, wood, foam, composite, etc.—into custom parts and designs. While the CNC machining process offers various capabilities and operations, the fundamental principles of the process remain largely the same throughout all of them. The basic CNC machining process includes the following stages:


Designing the CAD model


Converting the CAD file to a CNC program


Preparing the CNC machine


Executing the machining operation


CAD Model Design


The CNC machining process begins with the creation of a 2D vector or 3D solid part CAD design either in-house or by a CAD/CAM design service company. Computer-aided design (CAD) software allows designers and manufacturers to produce a model or rendering of their parts and products along with the necessary technical specifications, such as dimensions and geometries, for producing the part or product.


Designs for CNC machined parts are restricted by the capabilities (or inabilities) of the CNC machine and tooling. For example, most custom CNC machine parts tooling is cylindrical therefore the part geometries possible via the CNC machining process are limited as the tooling creates curved corner sections. Additionally, the properties of the material being machined, tooling design, and workholding capabilities of the machine further restrict the design possibilities, such as the minimum part thicknesses, maximum part size, and inclusion and complexity of internal cavities and features.


Once the CAD design is completed, the designer exports it to a CNC-compatible file format, such as STEP or IGES.


CNC Machining Tolerances Tables


When specifying parts to a machine shop, it's important to include any necessary tolerances. Though CNC machines are very accurate, they still leave some slight variation between duplicates of the same part, generally around + or - .005 in (.127 mm), which is roughly twice the width of a human hair. To save on costs, buyers should only specify tolerances in areas of the part that will need to be especially accurate because they will come into contact with other parts. While there are standard tolerances for different levels of machining (as shown in the tables below), not all tolerances are equal.


CAD File Conversion


The formatted CAD design file runs through a program, typically computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software, to extract the part geometry and generates the digital programming code which will control the CNC machine and manipulate the tooling to produce the custom-designed part.


CNC machines used several programming languages, including G-code and M-code. The most well-known of the CNC programming languages, general or geometric code, referred to as G-code, controls when, where, and how the machine tools move—e.g., when to turn on or off, how fast to travel to a particular location, what paths to take, etc.—across the workpiece. Miscellaneous function code, referred to as M-code, controls the auxiliary functions of the machine, such as automating the removal and replacement of the machine cover at the start and end of production, respectively.


Once the CNC program is generated, the operator loads it to the CNC machine.


Machine Setup


Before the operator runs the CNC program, they must prepare the CNC machine for operation. These preparations include affixing the workpiece directly into the machine, onto machinery spindles, or into machine vises or similar workholding devices, and attaching the required tooling, such as drill bits and end mills, to the proper machine components.


Once the machine is fully set up, the operator can run the CNC program.


Machining Operation Execution


The CNC program acts as instructions for the CNC machine; it submits machine commands dictating the tooling's actions and movements to the machine's integrated computer, which operates and manipulates the machine tooling. Initiating the program prompts the CNC machine to begin the CNC machining process, and the program guides the machine throughout the process as it executes the necessary machine operations to produce a custom-designed part or product.


CNC machining processes can be performed in-house—if the company invests in obtaining and maintaining their own CNC equipment—or out-sourced to dedicated CNC machining service providers.


Types of CNC Machining Operations


CNC machining is a manufacturing process suitable for a wide variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, construction, and agriculture, and able to produce a range of products, such as automobile frames, surgical equipment, airplane engines, gears, and hand and garden tools. The process encompasses several different computer-controlled machining operations—including mechanical, chemical, electrical, and thermal processes—which remove the necessary material from the workpiece to produce a custom-designed part or product. While chemical, electrical, and thermal machining processes are covered in a later section, this section explores some of the most common mechanical CNC machining operations including:


Drilling


Milling


Turning


CNC Drilling


Drilling is a machining process which employs multi-point drill bits to produce cylindrical holes in the workpiece. In CNC drilling, typically the CNC machine feeds the rotating drill bit perpendicularly to the plane of the workpiece's surface, which produces vertically-aligned holes with diameters equal to the diameter of the drill bit employed for the drilling operation. However, angular drilling operations can also be performed through the use of specialized machine configurations and workholding devices. Operational capabilities of the drilling process include counterboring, countersinking, reaming, and tapping.


CNC Milling


Milling is a machining process which employs rotating multi-point cutting tools to remove material from the workpiece. In CNC milling, the CNC machine typically feeds the workpiece to the cutting tool in the same direction as the cutting tool's rotation, whereas in manual milling the machine feeds the workpiece in the opposite direction to the cutting tool's rotation. Operational capabilities of the milling process include face milling—cutting shallow, flat surfaces and flat-bottomed cavities into the workpiece—and peripheral milling—cutting deep cavities, such as slots and threads, into the workpiece.


CNC Turning


Turning is a machining process which employs single-point cutting tools to remove material from the rotating workpiece. In CNC turning, the machine—typically a CNC lathe machine—feeds the cutting tool in a linear motion along the surface of the rotating workpiece, removing material around the circumference until the desired diameter is achieved, to produce cylindrical parts with external and internal features, such as slots, tapers, and threads. Operational capabilities of the turning process include boring, facing, grooving, and thread cutting. When it comes down to a CNC mill vs. lathe, milling, with its rotating cutting tools, works better for more complex parts. However, lathes, with rotating workpieces and stationary cutting tools, work best for faster, more accurate creation of round parts.


CNC Metal Spinning


Close cousins to lathes, CNC spinning lathe machines involve a lathe set with a blank (a metal sheet or tube) that rotates at high speeds while a metal spinning roller shapes the workpiece into a desired shape. As a "cold" process, CNC metal spinning forms pre-formed metal—the friction of the spinning lathe contacting the roller creates the force necessary to shape the part.


How Does a Swiss Machine Work?


Swiss machining, also known as swiss screw machining, uses a specialized type of lathe that allows the workpiece to move back and forth as well as rotate, to enable closer tolerances and better stability while cutting. Workpieces are cut right next to the bushing holding them instead of farther away. This allows for less stress on the part being made. Swiss machining is best for small parts in large quantities, like watch screws, as well as for applications with critical straightness or concentricity tolerances. You can find out more about this topic in our guide on how swiss screw machines work.


How Does a 5 Axis CNC Machine Work?


5 axis CNC machining describes a numerically-controlled computerized manufacturing system that adds to the traditional machine tool's 3-axis linear motions (X, Y, Z) two rotational axes to provide the machine tool access to five out of six part sides in a single operation. By adding a tilting, rotating work holding fixture (or trunnion) to the work table, the mill becomes what is called a 3+2, or an indexed or positional, machine, enabling the milling cutter to approach five out of six sides of a prismatic workpiece at 90° without an operator having to reset the workpiece.


It is not quite a 5-axis mill, however, because the fourth and fifth axes do not move during machining operations. Adding servomotors to the additional axes, plus the computerized control for them – the CNC part –would make it one. Such a machine- which is capable of full simultaneous contouring- is sometimes called a "continuous" or "simultaneous" 5-axis CNC mill. The two additional axes can also be incorporated at the machining head, or split – one axis on the table and one on the head.


CNC Lathe Operator Training


To handle a CNC lathe, a machinist should have completed a set amount of coursework and earned appropriate certification from an accredited industrial training organization. CNC turning machining training programs will usually involve multiple classes or sessions, offering a gradual instruction process broken up into several steps. The importance of adhering to safety protocols is reinforced throughout the training process.


Beginning CNC lathe classes might not include hands-on experience, but they may include familiarizing students with the command codes, translating CAD files, tool selection, cutting sequences, and other areas. A beginner CNC lathe course may include:


Lubrication and scheduling lathe maintenance


Translating instructions into a machine-readable format and loading them into the lathe


Establishing criteria for tool selection


Installing tools and parts for handling the material


Producing sample parts, like die-casting parts


Later CNC lathe training typically involves actual lathe operation, as well as machine adjustments, program editing, and the development of new command syntax. This type of lathe machine training can include courses on:


Figuring out where edits are needed from comparing sample parts to their specifications


CNC programming edits


Creating multiple cycles of test components to refine the results of edits


Regulating coolant flow, cleaning the lathe, and repair and replacement of tools


CNC Machining Equipment and Components


As indicated above, there is a wide range of machining operations available. Depending on the machining operation being performed, the CNC machining process employs a variety of software applications, machines, and machine tools to produce the desired shape or design.


Types of CNC Machining Support Software


The CNC machining process employs software applications to ensure the optimization, precision, and accuracy of the custom-designed part or product. Software applications used include:


CAD


CAM


CAE


CAD: Computer-aided design (CAD) software are programs used to draft and produce 2D vector or 3D solid part and surface renderings, as well as the necessary technical documentation and specifications associated with the part. The designs and models generated in a CAD program are typically used by a CAM program to create the necessary machine program to produce the part via a CNC machining method. CAD software can also be used to determine and define optimal part properties, evaluate and verify part designs, simulate products without a prototype, and provide design data to manufacturers and job shops.


CAM: Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software are programs used extract the technical information from the CAD model and generate machine program necessary to run the CNC machine and manipulate the tooling to produce the custom-designed part, such as stamping parts, custom plastic parts, etc. CAM software enables the CNC machine to run without operator assistance and can help automate finished product evaluation. 


CAE: Computer-aided engineering (CAE) software are programs used by engineers during the pre-processing, analysis, and post-processing phases of the development process. CAE software is used as assistive support tools in engineering analysis applications, such as design, simulation, planning, manufacturing, diagnosis, and repair, to help with evaluating and modifying product design. Types of CAE software available include finite element analysis (FEA), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and multibody dynamics (MDB) software.


Some software applications have combined all of the aspects of CAD, CAM, and CAE software. This integrated program, typically referred to as CAD/CAM/CAE software, allows a single software program to manage the entire fabrication process from design to analysis to production.


What is a CNC Machine? Types of CNC Machines and custom CNC precision machining parts


Depending on the machining operation being performed, the CNC machining process employs a variety of CNC machines and machine tools to produce the custom-designed part or product. While the equipment may vary in other ways from operation to operation and application to application, the integration of computer numerical control components and software (as outlined above) remains consistent across all CNC machining equipment and processes.


CNC Drilling Equipment


Drilling employs rotating drill bits to produce the cylindrical holes in the workpiece. The design of the drill bit allows for the waste metal—i.e., chips—to fall away from the workpiece. There are several types of drill bits, each of which is used for a specific application. Types of drill bits available include spotting drills (for producing shallow or pilot holes), peck drills (for reducing the amount of chips on the workpiece), screw machine drills (for producing holes without a pilot hole), and chucking reamers (for enlarging previously produced holes).


Typically the CNC drilling process also utilizes CNC-enabled drill presses, which are specifically designed to perform the drilling operation. However, the operation can also be performed by turning, tapping, or milling machines.


CNC Milling Equipment


Milling employs rotating multi-point cutting tools to shape the workpiece. Milling tools are either horizontally or vertically oriented and include end mills, helical mills, and chamfer mills.


The CNC milling process also utilizes CNC-enabled milling machinery, referred to as mill machines or mills, which can be horizontally or vertically oriented. Basic mills are capable of three-axis movements, with more advanced models accommodating additional axes. The types of mills available include hand milling, plain milling, universal milling, and omniversal milling machines.


CNC Turning Equipment


Turning employs single-point cutting tools to remove material from the rotating workpiece. The design of the turning tool varies based on the particular application, with tools available for roughing, finishing, facing, threading, forming, undercutting, parting, and grooving applications.


The CNC turning process also utilizes CNC-enabled lathes or turning machines. The types of lathes available include turret lathes, engine lathes, and special-purpose lathes.


What is a Desktop CNC Machine?


Companies that specialize in manufacturing CNC machines often offer a desktop series of smaller, lightweight machines. Desktop CNC machines, although slower and less precise, handle soft materials well, such as plastic and foam. They're also better for smaller parts and light to moderate production. Machines featured in a tabletop series resemble the larger industry standard, but their size and weight make them better suited to small applications. A desktop CNC lathe, for example, that features two axes and can handle parts up to six inches in diameter, would be useful for jewelry and mold-making. Other common desk CNC machines include plotter-sized laser cutters and milling machines.


With smaller lathes, it's important to differentiate between a benchtop CNC lathe machine and a desktop lathe. Benchtop CNC lathes are generally more affordable, but also smaller and somewhat limited in the applications they can handle. A standard CNC benchtop lathe generally includes the motion controller, cables, and basic software. A standard CNC desktop lathe, with a similar basic package, costs slightly more.

Everything you need to know about Gas Solenoid Valves Posted by: ffuutty150 - 29 minutes ago - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

Everything you need to know about Gas Solenoid Valves


Gas Solenoid Valves are as versatile as they are useful. Translating electrical impulses, to open and close the valve, they control the flow of gas in a wide range of industrial and residential applications. In this tutorial article, PIF takes a closer look at what Gas Solenoid Valves do, what applications they're used for, and the key manufacturers of these handy types of solenoid valve.


What are Gas Solenoid Valves?


Gas Solenoid Valves are made of parts that receive electrical impulses that then translate those impulses into mechanical movements. When an electrical impulse is received, by the Gas Solenoid Valve, it will open or close the valve. Thus controlling the flow of gas into a chamber or through a line.


Applications for Gas Solenoid Valves


A gas solenoid valve can be used in many applications. Both for commercial and residential devices. Commercial uses of Gas Solenoid Valves with pressure switch generally include any pneumatic machinery that uses gas pressure to move its parts. Manufacturing facilities might use solenoid valves to control the movement of gases used in their manufacturing processes.


Residential applications include solenoid valves used inside furnaces. These control when the gas comes on and is ignited by the pilot light to create warmth. Vehicles powered by natural gas use solenoid valves to control the flow of gas into the engine's cylinders. While gas-powered clothes dryers also have solenoid valves to control the flow of gas into the dryer, which helps to prevent fires or gas poisoning.


Key Manufacturers of Gas Solenoid Valves


ASCO provides the broadest line of solenoid & motorised shutoff valves designed to control the flow of fuel gas, liquid propane and all grades of fuel oil used in combustion applications such as: industrial furnaces, ovens, kilns, incinerators, burners and boilers. Solenoid operated valves handling combustion system pilot and main line fuel shutoff and control needs. These valves are available in 2-way normally closed, normally open, manual reset, and 3-way diversion.


Bürkert also produce solenoid valves with gas filter for fluid and gaseous media, aggressive or neutral, applicable in various ranges of temperature and pressure. In fact, Christian Bürkert, founder of Bürkert is said to have pioneered the 'solenoid valve' as we know it today, setting the international benchmark for industrial solenoid valves.


Buschjost (an IMI Norgren brand) manufactures a wide range of Solenoid Valves for use with different pressures, media's, temperatures and applications. The Buschjost range of Solenoid Valves include direct-acting solenoid valves, indirect-acting solenoid valves, or a combination of both; solenoid valves with forced lifting.


Gas Solenoid Valve Materials


ASCO valves are available in brass, aluminium, and stainless steel. Their main features include junction box; pipe taps; visual indication; proof of closure; leading agency approvals; and pipe connections from 1/8" to 3". Most valves are rated for -40oF service for outdoor installation in frigid climates.


Bürkert's range of gas solenoid valves are available in an extensive range of body and seal materials. From PTFE, to NBR, EPDM and even PEEK, this tutorial article on solenoid valve materials by Solenoid Valve expert Michael Hannig will tell you all you need to know.


Useful Solenoid Valve Resources


This chemical resistance chart and solenoid valve selection guide from Bürkert is an extremely useful resource when specifying or choosing the correct solenoid valve for an application. There is also pressure regulate valve.


Solenoid Valve material selection chart


This white paper from ASCO covers breakthrough solenoid valve technology in oil and gas applications.


Breakthrough solenoid valve technology for oil and gas applications


Finally, this technical tips video from Norgren Buschjost explain exactly how solenoid valves work in process applications, the different types of solenoid valves available and typical applications.

Types of Sewing Machines and their Uses Posted by: ffuutty150 - 41 minutes ago - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

Types of Sewing Machines and their Uses


A sewing machine consists of four basic mechanisms: a take-up mechanism, a needle-motion mechanism, a material-feeding mechanism, and a bobbin. Its proper operation requires a delicate balance of these mechanisms. This paper introduces a computer-simulation model that represents these mechanisms and uses the model to predict the kinetic behavior of sewing machines. Based on the simulation. a quantitative understanding of the sewing machine can be achieved that leads to improved sewing-machine design and better sewing-process control. In particular, the balance of thread supply and thread requirement is studied. the thread supply is defined as the amount of thread supplied by the take-up mechanism within one stitch. The thread requirement is defined as the amount of thread required in one stitch and is controlled primarily by the bobbin mechanism. Both properties change instantaneously. From a practical point of view, if the thread requirement were much larger than the thread supply, then there would be skip stitches (when the loop cannot be formed properly) or even thread breakage. On the other hand, if the thread requirement were much less than the thread supply, then there might be poor stitches (with too much thread in the loop) or even needle-jamming. By using the simulation model, the instantaneous balance of the thread supply and the thread requirement is quantitatively studied. It is shown that the balance of thread supply and thread requirement can be changed and optimized by changing the design parameters of the take-up mechanism. The model is validated experimentally by using a Pfaff lockstitch industrial sewing machine.


Industrial sewing machines differ from traditional consumer sewing machines in many ways. An industrial sewing machine is specifically built for long term, professional sewing tasks and is therefore constructed with superior durability, parts, and motors. Whereas traditional sewing machines might include nylon or plastic gears, an industrial sewing machine's gears, connecting rods, housings, and body are typically constructed from high-quality metals, such as cast iron or aluminum. Beyond that, industrial sewing machines are made to handle thick materials such as leather, produce faster stitch rates, and incorporate stouter, more positive feed components than do their consumer equivalents.


With regard to these types of industrial sewing machines, the primary differentiation between them is based on the design of the bed. These four different sewing machine bed styles and their uses are as follows:


Flatbed: The most common type, these machines resemble traditional sewing machines in that the arm and needle extend over the flat base of the machine. Workers typically use this machine for sewing flat pieces of fabric together. Some type of fabric feed mechanism is usually housed in the bed (see below).


Cylinder-bed: These machines feature a narrow, cylindrical bed as opposed to a flat base. This allows the fabric to pass around and under the bed.  Workers employ the cylinder-bed machine for sewing cylindrical pieces such as cuffs, but it is also useful for bulky and curved items such as saddles and shoes.


Post-bed: These machines feature bobbins, feed dogs, and/or loopers in a vertical column that rises above the flat base of the machine. The height of this column can vary depending on the machine and its application. Applications that make access to the sewing area difficult, such as attaching emblems, or boot or glove making, utilize the post-bed machine.


Off-the-arm: The least common group, these machines extend a cylindrical bed out from the back of the machine perpendicular to the direction taken by the bed of the cylinder-bed machine. This allows for long runs of tubular goods, such as the inseams of trousers, and is useful for sewing sleeves and shoulder seams.


Other special-purpose sewing machines exist, as well. Portable and fixed electric units are often employed for closing large sacks of agricultural products, dog food, etc. Bookbinders use special machines in their operations. Carpet installers also use special machines for binding carpet. Embroidering and monogramming machines are used for textile customization and decorating and are often program-controlled. Special long arm machines are made for sailmakers and purpose-built machines are available for cobblers.


Sewing Machine Feeds


Different industrial sewing machines offer several ways to feed the material. Typically, industrial mini sewing machines that deliver numerous feed capabilities are more expensive. The main types of feed mechanisms are:


Drop feed: The feed mechanism lies below the machine's sewing surface. This is probably the most common feed type. Toothed segments called feed dogs lift and advance the fabric between each stitch, with the teeth pressing upwards and sandwiching the material against a presser foot.


Needle feed: The needle itself acts as the feed mechanism, which minimizes slippage and allows workers to sew multiple layers of fabric.


Walking foot: The immobile presser foot is replaced with a foot that moves with the feed, which allows easier performance on thick, spongy or cushioned materials.


Puller feed: The machine grips and pulls straight-seamed material as it is sewn and can perform on large, heavy-duty items such as canvas tents. 


Manual feed: The feed is controlled entirely by the worker, who can do delicate, personal work such as shoe repair, embroidering, and quilting. On industrial overlock sewing machines, it is sometimes necessary to remove the feed dogs to obtain a manual feed.


The application of an industrial sewing machine is also an important factor to consider. For example, some machines come with an automatic pocket setter, while others include pattern programmability or electronic eyelet buttonholers. Furthermore, the strength and design of the machine needs to complement the type of material being sewn. Higher quality machines will likely be necessary for medium to heavy materials, such as denim, while base level industrial machines may be adequate for lighter materials, such as cotton.


Other Considerations


A particular machine's available stitch types can vary. There are several dozen distinct types of stitches, each requiring between one and seven threads. Plain, or straight stitches are the most commonly used stitches in industrial sewing and include lock, chain, overlock, and coverstitch. Sailmakers, on the other hand, use zig-zag stitching to better tolerate seam loading between sail panels.


Yet another important feature is the size and speed of the industrial embroidery sewing machine. More expensive machines will be able to sew more stitches per minute. Larger machines provide a larger clearance area under the foot and bigger bed size.


Many industrial machines are sold without motors and can be operated with either clutch motors or servomotors, depending on the user's needs. Clutch motors run constantly and power to the machine is transmitted by depressing a foot treadle to actuate the clutch. Servomotors run on demand and are speed controllable as well, much as are home sewing machines with sewing machine motor. Both motor types are available for 120 or 240 vac power. Raising of the presser foot is often done with a knee paddle to allow the operator full use of both hands. Although many home machines are able to do a wide variety of operations, production sewing often uses machines that are set up for specific tasks such as bar tacking, buttonhole making, etc. Machines for tailors and seamstresses are likely to be capable of a fuller range of operations.

Types of Sewing Machines and their Uses Posted by: ffuutty150 - 52 minutes ago - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

Types of Sewing Machines and their Uses


A sewing machine consists of four basic mechanisms: a take-up mechanism, a needle-motion mechanism, a material-feeding mechanism, and a bobbin. Its proper operation requires a delicate balance of these mechanisms. This paper introduces a computer-simulation model that represents these mechanisms and uses the model to predict the kinetic behavior of sewing machines. Based on the simulation. a quantitative understanding of the sewing machine can be achieved that leads to improved sewing-machine design and better sewing-process control. In particular, the balance of thread supply and thread requirement is studied. the thread supply is defined as the amount of thread supplied by the take-up mechanism within one stitch. The thread requirement is defined as the amount of thread required in one stitch and is controlled primarily by the bobbin mechanism. Both properties change instantaneously. From a practical point of view, if the thread requirement were much larger than the thread supply, then there would be skip stitches (when the loop cannot be formed properly) or even thread breakage. On the other hand, if the thread requirement were much less than the thread supply, then there might be poor stitches (with too much thread in the loop) or even needle-jamming. By using the simulation model, the instantaneous balance of the thread supply and the thread requirement is quantitatively studied. It is shown that the balance of thread supply and thread requirement can be changed and optimized by changing the design parameters of the take-up mechanism. The model is validated experimentally by using a Pfaff lockstitch industrial sewing machine.


Industrial sewing machines differ from traditional consumer sewing machines in many ways. An industrial sewing machine is specifically built for long term, professional sewing tasks and is therefore constructed with superior durability, parts, and motors. Whereas traditional sewing machines might include nylon or plastic gears, an industrial sewing machine's gears, connecting rods, housings, and body are typically constructed from high-quality metals, such as cast iron or aluminum. Beyond that, industrial sewing machines are made to handle thick materials such as leather, produce faster stitch rates, and incorporate stouter, more positive feed components than do their consumer equivalents.


With regard to these types of industrial sewing machines, the primary differentiation between them is based on the design of the bed. These four different sewing machine bed styles and their uses are as follows:


Flatbed: The most common type, these machines resemble traditional sewing machines in that the arm and needle extend over the flat base of the machine. Workers typically use this machine for sewing flat pieces of fabric together. Some type of fabric feed mechanism is usually housed in the bed (see below).


Cylinder-bed: These machines feature a narrow, cylindrical bed as opposed to a flat base. This allows the fabric to pass around and under the bed.  Workers employ the cylinder-bed machine for sewing cylindrical pieces such as cuffs, but it is also useful for bulky and curved items such as saddles and shoes.


Post-bed: These machines feature bobbins, feed dogs, and/or loopers in a vertical column that rises above the flat base of the machine. The height of this column can vary depending on the machine and its application. Applications that make access to the sewing area difficult, such as attaching emblems, or boot or glove making, utilize the post-bed machine.


Off-the-arm: The least common group, these machines extend a cylindrical bed out from the back of the machine perpendicular to the direction taken by the bed of the cylinder-bed machine. This allows for long runs of tubular goods, such as the inseams of trousers, and is useful for sewing sleeves and shoulder seams.


Other special-purpose sewing machines exist, as well. Portable and fixed electric units are often employed for closing large sacks of agricultural products, dog food, etc. Bookbinders use special machines in their operations. Carpet installers also use special machines for binding carpet. Embroidering and monogramming machines are used for textile customization and decorating and are often program-controlled. Special long arm machines are made for sailmakers and purpose-built machines are available for cobblers.


Sewing Machine Feeds


Different industrial sewing machines offer several ways to feed the material. Typically, industrial mini sewing machines that deliver numerous feed capabilities are more expensive. The main types of feed mechanisms are:


Drop feed: The feed mechanism lies below the machine's sewing surface. This is probably the most common feed type. Toothed segments called feed dogs lift and advance the fabric between each stitch, with the teeth pressing upwards and sandwiching the material against a presser foot.


Needle feed: The needle itself acts as the feed mechanism, which minimizes slippage and allows workers to sew multiple layers of fabric.


Walking foot: The immobile presser foot is replaced with a foot that moves with the feed, which allows easier performance on thick, spongy or cushioned materials.


Puller feed: The machine grips and pulls straight-seamed material as it is sewn and can perform on large, heavy-duty items such as canvas tents. 


Manual feed: The feed is controlled entirely by the worker, who can do delicate, personal work such as shoe repair, embroidering, and quilting. On industrial overlock sewing machines, it is sometimes necessary to remove the feed dogs to obtain a manual feed.


The application of an industrial sewing machine is also an important factor to consider. For example, some machines come with an automatic pocket setter, while others include pattern programmability or electronic eyelet buttonholers. Furthermore, the strength and design of the machine needs to complement the type of material being sewn. Higher quality machines will likely be necessary for medium to heavy materials, such as denim, while base level industrial machines may be adequate for lighter materials, such as cotton.


Other Considerations


A particular machine's available stitch types can vary. There are several dozen distinct types of stitches, each requiring between one and seven threads. Plain, or straight stitches are the most commonly used stitches in industrial sewing and include lock, chain, overlock, and coverstitch. Sailmakers, on the other hand, use zig-zag stitching to better tolerate seam loading between sail panels.


Yet another important feature is the size and speed of the industrial embroidery sewing machine. More expensive machines will be able to sew more stitches per minute. Larger machines provide a larger clearance area under the foot and bigger bed size.


Many industrial machines are sold without motors and can be operated with either clutch motors or servomotors, depending on the user's needs. Clutch motors run constantly and power to the machine is transmitted by depressing a foot treadle to actuate the clutch. Servomotors run on demand and are speed controllable as well, much as are home sewing machines with sewing machine motor. Both motor types are available for 120 or 240 vac power. Raising of the presser foot is often done with a knee paddle to allow the operator full use of both hands. Although many home machines are able to do a wide variety of operations, production sewing often uses machines that are set up for specific tasks such as bar tacking, buttonhole making, etc. Machines for tailors and seamstresses are likely to be capable of a fuller range of operations.

Injection molding Posted by: ffuutty150 - 1 hour ago - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

Injection molding

It is usually slow and inefficient to mold thermoplastics using the compression molding techniques described above. In particular, it is necessary to cool a thermoplastic part before removing it from the mold, and this requires that the mass of metal making up the mold also be cooled and then reheated for each part. Plastic Injection Molding is a method of overcoming this inefficiency. Injection molding resembles transfer molding in that the liquefying of the resin and the regulating of its flow is carried out in a part of the apparatus that remains hot, while the shaping and cooling are carried out in a part that remains cool. In a reciprocating screw injection molding machine, material flows under gravity from the hopper onto a turning screw. The mechanical energy supplied by the screw, together with auxiliary heaters, converts the resin into a molten state. At the same time, the screw retracts toward the hopper end. When a sufficient amount of resin is melted, the screw moves forward, acting like a ram and forcing the polymer to melt through a gate into the cooled mold. Once the plastic has solidified in the mold, the mold is unclamped and opened, and the part is pushed from the mold by automatic ejector pins. The mold is then closed and clamped, and the screw turns and retracts again to repeat the cycle of liquefying a new increment of resin. For small parts, cycles can be as rapid as several injections per minute.



One type of network-forming thermoset, polyurethane, is molded into parts such as automobile bumpers and inside panels through a process known as reaction PEEK Injection Molding, or RIM. The two liquid precursors of polyurethane are a multifunctional isocyanate and a prepolymer, a low-molecular-weight polyether or polyester bearing a multiplicity of reactive end-groups such as hydroxyl, amine, or amide. In the presence of a catalyst such as a tin soap, the two reactants rapidly form a network joined mainly by urethane groups. The reaction takes place so rapidly that the two precursors have to be combined in a special mixing head and immediately introduced into the mold. However, once in the mold, the product requires very little pressure to fill and conform to the mold—especially since a small amount of gas is evolved in the injection process, expanding the polymer volume and reducing resistance to flow. The low molding pressures allow relatively lightweight and inexpensive molds to be used, even when large items such as bumper assemblies or refrigerator doors are formed.


The importance of Mold Design And Making on the productivity of a tool is often overlooked in the design of a mold. Several areas in the mold design exist where the molder must work with the mold builder in order to optimize the productivity of the mold. A good standard for mold productivity is saleable parts out of the press per hour. Cycle time and part quality are the critical aspects of saleable parts per hour. The areas of design found to be most important for increased productivity are the sprue bushing, runners and gates, hot manifold, venting, cooling, and ejection. While each of these items is specific to the mold being built, good design for each can contribute to improved part quality and optimum cycle time.


Too often the mold maker is left to decide the sizes of the sprue, runners, and gates and only when running the first samples does the molder learn that the sizes are not optimal. Much of this can be resolved beforehand by following the principles of runner and gate design found in the Injection Molding Handbook, as well as other reference materials. Again, runners sized too small affect the heat and pressure of the Plastic Mold and runners too large may slow the cycle for cooling time and cause unnecessary regrind.


Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machining is a manufacturing process in which pre-programmed computer software dictates the movement of factory tools and machinery. The process can be used to control a range of complex machinery, from grinders and lathes to mills and CNC routers. With CNC Machining Service, three-dimensional cutting tasks can be accomplished in a single set of prompts.


The CNC process runs in contrast to — and thereby supersedes — the limitations of manual control, where live operators are needed to prompt and guide the commands of machining tools via levers, buttons and wheels. To the onlooker, a CNC system might resemble a regular set of computer components, but the software programs and consoles employed in CNC PEEK Machining Servicedistinguish it from all other forms of computation.


When a CNC system is activated, the desired cuts are programmed into the software and dictated to corresponding tools and machinery, which carry out the dimensional tasks as specified, much like a robot. In CNC programming, the code generator within the numerical system will often assume mechanisms are flawless, despite the possibility of errors, which is greater whenever a CNC machine is directed to cut in more than one direction simultaneously. The placement of a tool in a numerical control system is outlined by a series of inputs known as the part program.


With a numerical control machine, programs are inputted via punch cards. By contrast, the programs for CNC POM Machining Services are fed to computers through small keyboards. CNC programming is retained in a computer's memory. The code itself is written and edited by programmers. Therefore, CNC systems offer far more expansive computational capacity. Best of all, CNC systems are by no means static since newer prompts can be added to pre-existing programs through revised code.


Rubber materials that are harder are more resistant to compression set, the permanent deformation of a material after prolonged compressive stresses at a given temperature and deflection. If a rubber reaches a compression set, the seal loses its ability to return to its original thickness when the compressive stress is released. Leakage may occur, and seal failure can result. Chemical resistance can be critical – and complicated. That's why it's important to identify all the chemical agents to which your rubber product will be exposed. For example, if you're in the mobile equipment industry, you may need engine bay insulation that can resist both fuel oil and cleaning chemicals. The Rubber Seals on fuel tanks may need to resist both diesel fuel and biodiesel blends.

How It Works: A Lean, Mean Nail Gun Posted by: ffuutty150 - 1 hour ago - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

How It Works: A Lean, Mean Nail Gun

Pneumatic nailers can slash the time it takes to fasten everything from window trim to roof rafters. The basic guts of the tool haven't changed since the 1960s: Compressed air pushes a piston that drives a rod, forcing nails deep into wood, before the tool resets for the next nail. Now Bosch has figured out how to make an Air Nailer that is 20 percent smaller while boosting power by 10 percent, so it can drive nails into hardwoods like walnut with less pressure than other guns. Instead of reserving some of the compressed air for resetting the piston, which weakens the strike, the tool uses all of the air's energy to drive the nails. A vent exhausts the air, and a second burst returns the piston. Since our Coil Nailer can operate at lower pressure, it reduces wear on compressors and components, while still hammering home 1- to 2.5-inch-long nails all day.


Design Highlights on the Nail Gun


Self-Cleaning Filter: The pressurized air leaving the tool cleans this filter, which captures debris like sawdust and dirt, preventing it from clogging the cylinder.


Fitting: A connection to an air hose allows pressurized air to flow from an electric air compressor into the Framing Nailer, where it's moved by valves controlled by the trigger.


Bump Firing: Like most nailers, we also have a semiautomatic mode called bump firing, in which you can hold down the trigger and fire a nail just by pressing the nose to the wood. A toggle switch on the trigger changes the position of a metal lever inside so that it touches the trigger-valve pin. At that point, depressing the nose pushes the metal lever into the pin, activating the trigger.


Depth of Drive: A dial lets you adjust the distance between the nose and the board, which changes how deeply the gun drives the nail.


Spray Guns are equipment that can spray paint or varnish using air pressure to apply it or spread it on a surface. These HVLP Spray Gun HVLP can be used to paint on any type of surface or substrate, be it metal, wood, stone, clay (ceramics), and porcelain, plastic, glass, and textile. For this reason, spray guns are fundamental tools for any type of manufacturing industry and repainting services, since they allow industrial finishing of any of their products economically and efficiently.


Spray guns were invented in 1888 by Dr. Allen DeVilbiss in the United States. Then, his son continued to improve the invention, producing the first Touch Up Spray Gun to use compressed air. The development of spray guns technology has continued to this day.


A pressure pot (AKA Paint Tank) is a precision painting tool and is typically used for customizing and fine tuning paint spray to meet desired texture results or job specs. The Automatic Paint Pressure Tank holds the paint and the desired spray is achieved by balancing liquid pressure via a liquid regulator, with air pressure via an air regulator. Both regulators sit atop the tank lid. Set fluid pressure, then set air pressure. Increasing air pressure and/or lowering fluid pressure will result in smaller particles of paint for a finer spray. Products differ by capacity, number of regulators and tank composition, among other considerations.


An Airless Sprayer, or a spray paint machine, simplifies painting in two ways: First, if you want to speed up a job that requires several gallons of paint, you can apply it twice as fast as with a roller or brush. And second, if you want a glass-smooth finish on woodwork or doors, the airless sprayer can lay the paint on flawlessly.


An Airless Paint Sprayer works by pumping paint at a very high pressure, up to 3,000 psi, through a hose and out a tiny hole in the spray gun tip. The tip is designed to break up the paint evenly into a fan-shaped spray pattern of tiny droplets. Using different tips, you can spray thin liquids like stain, lacquer and varnish or thicker liquids like latex house paint. With a little practice, you can use an airless sprayer to apply a perfectly smooth finish on doors, cabinets and woodwork. And since an airless sprayer pumps paint directly from a can or 5-gallon bucket, you can apply a lot of material in a short time. This makes an airless sprayer particularly well suited for large paint jobs, like priming bare drywall in a new house or painting a 300-ft.-long privacy fence.


Pneumatic Tools are designed around three basic devices: cylinders, blades, motors and sprayers. A piston is installed in the cylinder. The piston pushes the length of the cylinder by compressed air, and then returns by air or spring. In a common pneumatic hammer (called percussion drill), the piston is not connected to anything, but moves freely in the cylinder. At one end of the power stroke, the piston strikes the top of the drill bit; An additional mechanism in a hammer drill rotates the bit slightly after each blow. Light hand-held pneumatic hammer is used for cutting paint, carving rock and riveting from metal. Larger hammers for mining and quarrying; Some of them are mounted on mechanically propelled vehicles. The hammer is designed to be clamped on the side of a bucket or other container to hold sand or concrete. Vibration will cause the contents to settle. The blade motor is better adapted to rotary motion and can run at high speed. In this motor, the sliding blade radiates from the shaft end extending to the cylinder. The center of the shaft is not in the center of the cylinder; Therefore, the cavitation size formed by the blade and the cylinder wall is not equal. In the position with small cavitation, the air entering through the opening on the cylinder wall tends to push the blade to the position with large cavitation. There, air escapes through a second opening in the cylinder wall. When high-speed operation is required, there is no gear connection between the shaft and wire brush, drill bit, screwdriver and grinder; The speed is usually 10000 to 20000 rpm.

All About Pneumatic Nailers Posted by: ffuutty150 - 1 hour ago - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

All About Pneumatic Nailers

Air-powered nail guns offer many advantages that the hammer-and-nail approach, no matter how honorable, can't hope to match.


What Counts: 


Type of fastener 


Maximum and minimum length of the fastener 


Ease of clearing nail jams 


Easy-to-use depth adjustment for fasteners 


Exhaust ports that direct air away from the user 


Ease of loading fasteners


Pneumatic Air Nailers are not only much faster than doing the work by hand, but nailers also are more accurate and do less damage to delicate molding and trim. Cordless models offer the same advantages without the air hose.


A size for every task


Coil Nailers are made to handle almost every conceivable fastener, from tiny headless pins that leave virtually no trace to powerful framing guns that sink 16d nails as quickly as you can pull the trigger. The versatility and range of sizes has endeared nailers to everyone from roofers and framers to trim carpenters and cabinetmakers.


In a cabinet shop, the most useful nailers include Finish Nailers, Brad Nailers, pin nailers and narrow-crown staplers. Finish nailers, the heaviest of the lot, use 15- or 16-gauge nails up to 2-1/2 in. long. Some have angled nail magazines that make it easier to reach into tight spaces. Brad nailers use smaller 18-gauge nails up to 2 in. long. Because the nails are smaller in cross section, they leave a smaller hole that must be filled later and are less likely to split narrow trim and molding, But they also have less resistance to pull-through. Pin Nailers use headless pins — some as small as 23-gauge fasteners 1/2 in. long — for attaching delicate trim pieces and holding trim in place while glue dries. Staple guns are for use in places where the fastener won't show, such as attaching cabinet backs.


Beyond the cabinet shop


Framing Nailers drive much heavier nails, from 6d to 16d. They are much larger, heavier tools and come in two styles: coil and stick. Coil nailers are more compact and hold four or five times the number of nails that a stick nailer can. Some users find the coil nailers are not as well balanced as stick nailers. Stick nailers use full round-head nails, required by code in some parts of the country, or clipped-head nails that take up a little less room in the magazine. Framing guns also can be set up for two types of firing: bounce firing, where the gun is activated each time the tip is depressed, and sequential firing, where the safety tip must be depressed and the trigger pulled for each fastener.


Spraying is by far the most frequently used application when it comes to Industrial painting. Spray-painting equipment can be classified by atomization method: air, hydraulic or centrifugal. These classifications can general be broken down further into conventional air atomize, airless, air-assisted airless, air electrostatic, airless electrostatic air-assisted airless electrostatic; high-volume low-pressure (HVLP) and rotating electrostatic discs and bells. The most common of these being the air atomize, HVLP, Airless, Air Assisted Airless and electrostatic Spray Gun.


Air atomizing guns used to be the most popular for applying high quality paint finishes. Because they are notorious for yielding lower transfer efficiencies than HVLP Spray Gun HVLP, many states have passed air pollution regulations that outlaw them or discourage their use. These guns rely on paint pumped under pressure to conventional spray guns, so that it mixes with a stream of compressed air either internally or externally. The compressed air breaks up the liquid stream or atomizes it, causing it to break up into droplets that form a spray. Most internal-mix guns have controls to regulate fluid flow, atomizing air and spray patterns. Since these adjustments allow the guns to meet the finishing requirements of a variety of sizes and shapes, conventional spray guns are used for coating many high-quality items. They can apply catalyzed, high-solids and waterborne coatings as well as more traditional finishes.


It is very important to have the right size of water pressure Paint Tank for your usage. Whether you are installing a new one or upgrading your current pressure tank, selecting the right size of pressure tank for your pump system will ensure that your pump performance is optimized and sustained for as long as possible. That is the reason why pressure tanks have a wide range of sizes and depend on your unique situation and demands for your usages, suppliers can offer you hundred kinds of pressure tanks.


When speed of application is paramount, pro painters go for an airless paint sprayer. These sprayers work by pumping coatings through a tiny opening in the gun's tip. The pressures are so high—up to 3,000 psi—that the paint explodes from the tip into a fine mist. Such pressures also allow these sprayers to work with coatings of any type, from thin stains to pudding-thick latexes, without any need to adjust their consistency. And because the droplets they generate are so tiny, Airless Sprayers are also able to lay down a flawless finish on broad surfaces like cabinets and doors. By contrast, the high-volume, low-pressure (HVLP) sprayers often marketed to DIYers atomize paint using low-pressure air streams. The bigger, slower-moving droplets they create are less likely to drift off as overspray—a plus for small jobs and detail work—but these sprayers' lower output makes them impractical for covering large expanses.


Pneumatic Tools, powered by compressed air, can be a useful and portable addition to electrical tools on construction sites, in industrial workshops, and at any work site where power tools are used. The air compressors that power pneumatic tools must be used correctly to ensure the safety of all workers on the job site.


Common pneumatic tools used on the job include nail guns, staple guns, drills, riveting guns, paint sprayer, sanders, grinders, wrenches, buffers, and jackhammers, but the list of available air-powered hand tools is endless.

What are the most healthful vegetables? Posted by: ffuutty140 - Yesterday, 09:16 AM - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

What are the most healthful vegetables?


Eating plenty of vegetables may be one of the simplest ways to improve health and well-being.


All vegetables contain healthful vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber — but some stand out for their exceptional benefits.


Specific vegetables may offer more health advantages to certain people, depending on their diets, overall health, and nutritional needs.


In this article, we look at 15 of the most healthful vegetables and suggest ways to enjoy them as part of a balanced diet.


1. Spinach


Spinach is a leafy green vegetable and a great source of calcium, vitamins, iron, and antioxidants.


Due to its iron and calcium content, spinach is a great addition to any meat- or dairy-free diet.


One cup of raw spinach is mostly made up of water and contains only 7 caloriesTrusted Source. It also provides:


an adult's full daily requirementTrusted Source of vitamin K


high amounts of vitamin A


vitamin C


magnesium


folate


iron


calcium


antioxidants


Vitamin K is essential for a healthy body — especially for strong bones, as it improves the absorption of calcium.


Spinach also provides a good amount of iron for energy and healthy blood, and a high level of magnesium for muscle and nerve function.


It is also rich in antioxidants, and researchTrusted Source suggests that spinach leaves may lower blood pressure and benefit heart health.


If a person is taking blood thinners, such as warfarin (Coumadin), they should use caution when increasing their intake of dark leafy greens. Doctors recommend maintaining a consistent vitamin K intake over time for people taking these medications.


How to eat spinach


People enjoy spinach raw in salads, sandwiches, and smoothies. Cooked spinach also has significant health benefits and is a great addition to pasta dishes and soups.


2. Kale


Kale is a very popular leafy green vegetable products with several health benefits. It provides around 7 caloriesTrusted Source per cup of raw leaves and good amounts of vitamins A, C, and K.


Kale may benefit people with high cholesterol. One small 2008 study reports that males with high cholesterol who drank 150 milliliters of kale juice each day for 12 weeks experienced a 10% reduction in low-density lipoprotein, or "bad," cholesterol and a 27% increase in high-density lipoprotein, or "good," cholesterol.


Research from 2015Trusted Source, meanwhile, suggests that kale juice can reduce blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood sugar levels.


If a person is taking blood thinners, such as Coumadin, they should use caution when increasing their intake of dark leafy greens. It is best to maintain a consistent vitamin K intake while taking these medications.


How to eat kale


People use baby kale in pasta dishes, salads, and sandwiches. A person may also enjoy kale chips or juice.


3. Broccoli


Broccoli is an incredibly healthful vegetable that belongs to the same family as cabbage, kale, and cauliflower, fresh garlic, fresh onion, etc. These are all cruciferous vegetables.


Each cup of chopped and boiled broccoli contains:


around 31 caloriesTrusted Source


the full daily requirement of vitamin K


twice the daily recommended amount of vitamin C


According to the National Cancer InstituteTrusted Source, animal research has found that certain chemicals, called indoles and isothiocyanates, in cruciferous vegetables may inhibit the development of cancer in several organs, including the bladder, breasts, liver, and stomach.


These compounds may protect cells from DNA damage, inactivate cancer-causing agents, and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, research in humans has been mixed.


How to eat broccoli


Broccoli is very versatile. People can roast it, steam it, fry it, blend it into soups, or enjoy it warm in salads.


4. Peas


Peas are a sweet, starchy vegetable. They contain 134 caloriesTrusted Source per cooked cup, and they are rich in:


fiber, providing 9 grams (g) per serving


protein, providing 9 g per serving


vitamins A, C, and K


certain B vitamins


Green peas are a good source of plant-based protein, which may be especially beneficial for people with vegetarian or vegan diets.


Peas and other legumes contain fiber, which supports good bacteria in the gut and helps ensure regular bowel movements and a healthy digestive tract.


They are also rich in saponins, plant compounds that may help protect againstTrusted Source oxidative stress and cancer.


How to eat peas


It might be handy to keep a bag of peas in the freezer and gradually use them to boost the nutritional profiles of pasta dishes, risottos, and curries. A person might also enjoy a refreshing pea and mint soup.


5. Sweet potatoes


Sweet potatoes are root vegetables. Baked in its skin, a medium sweet potato provides 103 caloriesTrusted Source and 0.17 g of fat.


Each sweet potato also contains:


much more than an adult's daily requirement of vitamin A


25% of their vitamin C and B6 requirements


12% of their potassium requirement


beta carotene, which may improve eye health and help fight cancer


Sweet potatoes may be a good option for people with diabetes. This is because they are low on the glycemic index and rich in fiber, so they may help regulate blood sugar.


How to eat sweet potatoes


For a simple meal, bake a sweet potato in its skin and serve it with a source of protein, such as fish or tofu.


6. Beets


One cup of raw beets contains:


58.5 caloriesTrusted Source


442 milligrams (mg) of potassium


148 micrograms of folate


Beets and beet juice are great for improving heart health, as the vegetable is rich in heart-healthy nitrates. A small 2012 studyTrusted Source reports that drinking 500 g of beet juice significantly lowered blood pressure in healthy people.


These vegetables may also benefit people with diabetes. Beets contain an antioxidant called alpha-lipoic acid, which might be helpfulTrusted Source for people with diabetes-related nerve problems, called diabetic neuropathy.


How to eat beets


Roasting beets brings out their natural sweetness, but they also taste great raw in juices, salads, and sandwiches.


7. Carrots


Each cup of chopped carrots contains 52 caloriesTrusted Source and over four times an adult's daily recommended intake of vitamin A, in the form of beta carotene.


Vitamin A is vital for healthy eyesight, and getting enough of this nutrient may help prevent vision loss.


Certain nutrients in carrots may also have cancer-fighting properties. A 2018 reviewTrusted Source of 10 articles reports that dietary carrot intake was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer.


How to eat carrots


Carrots are extremely versatile. They work well in casseroles and soups, and they provide great health benefits when eaten raw, possibly with a dip such as hummus.


8. Fermented vegetables


Fermented vegetables provide all the nutrients of their unfermented counterparts as well as healthful doses of probiotics.


Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are present in the body and in some foods and supplements. Some researchers believe that they can improve gut health.


According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative HealthTrusted Source, probiotics may help with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. They may also prevent infection- or antibiotic-induced diarrhea.


Some good vegetables for fermentation include:


cabbage, as sauerkraut


cucumbers, as pickles


carrots


cauliflower


How to eat fermented vegetables


People eat fermented vegetables in salads, sandwiches, or as a side dish.


9. Tomatoes


Although tomatoes are technically a fruit products, most people treat them like vegetables and use them in savory dishes. Each cup of chopped, raw tomatoes contains:


32 caloriesTrusted Source


427 mg of potassium


24.7 mg of vitamin C


Tomatoes contain lycopene, a powerful antioxidant. ResearchTrusted Source suggests that lycopene may help prevent prostate cancer, and the beta carotene in tomatoes also helps combat cancer.


Meanwhile, other potent antioxidants in tomatoes, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, may protect vision.


The Age-Related Eye Disease StudyTrusted Source reports that people who have high dietary intakes of these substances have a 25% reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration.


How to eat tomatoes


People enjoy tomatoes raw or cooked, and cooking them releases more lycopene.


10. Garlic


People have long used garlic in cooking and medicine. Each garlic clove contains just 4 caloriesTrusted Source and is low in vitamins and minerals.


However, garlic is a natural antibiotic. For example, a 2018 reviewTrusted Source notes that people have used garlic for purposes similar to those of antibiotics since the 16th century.


Allium, a component of garlic, may be the source of its health benefits. Confirming this will require more research.


How to eat garlic


Heating garlic reduces its health benefits, so it is best to eat garlic raw, in bruschetta or dips, for example. There is also dried garlic.


11. Onions


Each cup of chopped onions can provideTrusted Source:


64 calories


vitamin C


vitamin B6


manganese


Onions and other allium vegetables, including garlic, contain sulfur compounds. Review studies, including a 2019 reviewTrusted Source and a 2015 reviewTrusted Source, suggest that these compounds may help protect against cancer.


How to eat onions


It can be easy to incorporate onions into soups, stews, stir-fries, and curries. To get the most from their antioxidants, eat them raw — in sandwiches, salads, and dips such as guacamole.


12. Alfalfa sprouts


Each cup of alfalfa sprouts contains only 8 caloriesTrusted Source and a good amount of vitamin K.


These sprouts also boast several compounds that contribute to good health, including:


saponins, a type of bitter compound with health benefits


flavonoids, a type of polyphenol known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects


phytoestrogens, plant compounds that are similar to natural estrogens


Traditionally, some have used alfalfa sprouts to treat a range of health conditions, such as arthritis and kidney problems. However, very few scientific investigations have explored these uses.


Research suggests that alfalfa sprouts contain antioxidants, which are compounds that may help fight diseases including cancer and heart disease.


Eating sprouted legumes such as these may have other benefits. StudiesTrusted Source suggest that sprouting, or germinating, seeds increases their protein and amino acid contents.


Germination may also improveTrusted Source the digestibility of alfalfa and other seeds and increase their dietary fiber content.


How to eat alfalfa sprouts


People enjoy alfalfa sprouts in salads and sandwiches.


13. Bell peppers


Sweet bell peppers may be red, yellow, or orange. Unripe, green bell peppers are also popular, though they taste less sweet.


A cup of chopped red bell pepper provides:


39 caloriesTrusted Source


190 mg of vitamin C


0.434 mg of vitamin B6


folate


beta carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A


Antioxidants and bioactive chemicals present in bell peppers includeTrusted Source:


ascorbic acid


carotenoids


vitamin C


beta carotene


flavonoids, such as quercetin and kaempferol


How to eat bell peppers


Bell peppers are extremely versatile and can be easy to incorporate into pasta, scrambled eggs, or a salad. A person might also enjoy them sliced with a side of guacamole or hummus.


14. Cauliflower


One cup of chopped cauliflower contains:


27 caloriesTrusted Source


plenty of vitamin C


vitamin K


fiber


The American Heart AssociationTrusted Source recommend eating 25 g of dietary fiber each day to promote heart and gut health.


Also, cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables contain an antioxidant called indole-3-carbinol. ResearchTrusted Source has linked this compound with cancer-combatting effects in animals. However, confirming the effects in humans requires more research.


And like broccoli, cauliflower contains another compound that may help combat cancer: sulforaphane.


How to eat cauliflower


A person can pulse raw cauliflower in a blender to make cauliflower rice or turn it into a pizza base for a low-calorie, comforting treat. People may also enjoy cauliflower in curries or baked with olive oil and garlic.


15. Seaweed


Seaweed, also known as sea vegetables, are versatile and nutritious plants that provide several health benefits. Common types of seaweed include:


kelp


nori


sea lettuce


spirulina


wakame


Seaweed is one of the few plant-based sources of the omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. These are essential for health and are mostly present in meat and dairy.


Each type of seaweed has a slightly different nutritional profile, but they are typically rich in iodine, which is an essential nutrient for thyroid function.


Eating a variety of sea vegetables can provide the body with several important antioxidants to reduce cellular damage.


Also, many types of seaweed contain chlorophyll, which is a plant pigment that has anti-inflammatory propertiesTrusted Source.


Brown sea vegetables, such as kelp and wakame, contain another potent antioxidant called fucoxanthin. ResearchTrusted Source suggests that this has 13.5 times the antioxidant power of vitamin E.


How to eat seaweed


When possible, choose organic seaweed and eat small amounts to avoid introducing too much iodine into the diet. People enjoy sea vegetables in sushi, miso soups, and as a seasoning for other dishes.


Summary


Eating vegetables every day is important for health. They provide essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, such as antioxidants and fiber.


Research consistently shows that people who eat at least 5 servings of vegetables a day have the lowest risk of many diseases, including cancer and heart disease.


Enjoy a range of vegetables and fruits like fresh apple and fresh oranges, daily to reap as many health benefits as possible.

Difference between feed pellet machine and wood pellet machine Posted by: ffuutty140 - Yesterday, 09:14 AM - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

Difference between feed pellet machine and wood pellet machine


Feed pellet machine is also named as pellet feed mill, fodder pellet mill. It belongs to animal feed processing equipment, which can directly extrude corn, soybean meal, rice husk, straw and grass into small pellets.


1, Different Raw Materials


Feed pellets are mainly made from corn meal, grass meal, straw meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal and rice husk etc. These materials are relatively soft and moist so they can be processed directly with a small amount of liquid. When the pellets mill working, there will be a heating process, after that, the feed pellets will be even more soft and smooth.


Biomass pellets are made from more various and harder materials. Logs, wood chips, waste wood, sawdust, sunflower stalk, cotton stalks, bamboo dust, coffee husk, wheat straw, palm husk and almost all the biomass waste you can think of can be processed in to pellets. Biomass pellets mills deal with raw materials contain more fiber, so the process is more complex than making feed pellet mills.


2, Different Shapes


Because of the reason we mentioned above, feed pellet mills and biomass pellet mills are different from the appearance. Generally speaking, feed pellet is smaller and thinner. The largest feed pellet mill is about 1 meters high and weighed several hundreds kilograms. While the smallest biomass pellets mill, for example, the wood pellet mill is more than 2 meters high and weighed around 5 to 6 tons. What's more, biomass raw materials are hard to process, so you may need a complete biomass pellet line to help you from chipping and crushing the raw material till packing the pellets.


3. Different Input Costs


If it is a pellet production line with the same output, for example, the pellet production line that is also 1t / h, the feed pellet production line with feed pellet granulator has a lower investment cost than the wood pellet production line.


Richi machinery produces a variety of animal feed pellet machines and wood pellet machines. If you need a large amount of pellets, you need to set up a pellet production line. We can provide you with a complete solution from the early design to the later equipment installation and training.


High quality pellets can withstand repeated handling as can occur during bagging, transportation, storage, and moving in feed lines without excessive breakage or generation of fine particles. Here we describe what factors influence the quality.


Feed pelleting can be defined as conversion of finely ground mash feed into dense, free flowing pellets or capsules, in a process that involves steam injection (moisture and heat) and mechanical pressure. There are several advantages for feeding broilers pelleted rather than mash feed. The main advantage is the improved bird performance (improved feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion). Birds fed pelleted diets spend less time and need lower maintenance energy requirements during eating and digestion in comparison to those fed mash feed. The other benefits of feeding pelleted diets include increase feed density, decrease feed dustiness, wastage and selection, better mechanical handling of feed on the feed lines, and destruction of feed-borne pathogens. Therefore, the full genetic potentials of modern broiler strains cannot be achieved without pelleted feed. In order to achieve these multi-benefits, the pellet durability should be of a standard quality (not contain too much fines), otherwise, the bird's performance will be adversely affected.


Pellet durability index


High quality pellets can be defined as pellets that can withstand repeated handling as can occur during bagging, transportation, storage, and moving on feed lines without excessive breakage or generation of fine particles. Pellet quality is usually expressed as the pellet durability index (PDI), and measured by using a tumbling can device, in which the pellet sample to be tested is first sieved to remove fines, then tumbled in the tumbling can device for a defined period of time. The tumbled sample is then sieved to remove fines, and the amount of intact pellets is determined. The PDI can be calculated as following: weight of intact pellet after tumbling / weight of intact pellet before tumbling x 100. Other devices can be used to determine the pellet durability such as Holmen pellet tester, lignotester, etc.


Factors affecting pellet quality


Several factors have an effect on the quality of the pellets. First of all the feed formulation (raw materials and additives used). Some feed ingredients have a good impact on pellet quality, while others could adversely affect the quality. Unfortunately, corn-soy diets are not the ideal diets to achieve the desired pellet quality. Dietary inclusion of wheat grain or wheat by products (wheat midds, wheat gluten) can increase pellet durability, because of the high protein (gluten) and hemi-cellulose content of wheat in comparison to corn or corn co-products. Similarly inclusion of oat as a partial substitute of corn can increase pellet quality.


We can rank feed grains according to their positive impacts on pellet quality from best to worst as followings:


oat,


wheat,


barley,


corn,


sorghum.


It was previously known that starch and its gelatinisation is the most important factor for achieving the desired pellet quality. However, recent reports indicated that the positive impact of protein on pellet quality is much more important than that of starch. Dietary inclusion of oil has an adverse effect on pellet quality. This is attributed to the coating effect of oil to the feed particles which prevent their penetration by the steam, also oil reduces the friction generated between die and feed particles with subsequent decrease in the starch gelatinisation rate. Inclusion of binding agents (e.g. water (simplest binder), lignin sulphonate, hemicelluloses extract, gelatin, etc.) and/or surfactants can increase pellet quality, pellet throughput, and lower power consumption (Table 2). The Feed pellet quality factor (FPQF) is a tool used to predict the pellet quality of the feed formula. Estimation of the FPQF for certain feed formula: each feed ingredient has a pellet quality factor (PQF). The PQF has a score from 0 to 10, where 0 predicts poor pellet quality and 10 good pellet quality. We can estimate the FPQF for each ingredient by multiplying the PQF by the % of inclusion of the feed ingredient in the formula (Table 1). The overall FPQF equals the sum of the FPQF of all ingredients used in the formula. Generally, values below 4.7 are indicators for poor pellet quality, while values higher that 4.7 are indicators for good pellet quality.

Affect of ingredient particle size and grinding on pellet quality


The second factor influencing feed pellet line quality is the feed ingredient particle size. Although doubted by some researchers, it is accepted that decreasing ingredient particle size has a good influence on pellet quality. However, over grinding is not recommended to avoid power wastage, reduced production rate and suboptimal gizzard development. On the other hand, coarse grinding eases pellet break down and decreases starch gelatinisation (high degree of gelatinisation is required to produce good pellets).


Affect of steam on pellet quality


Processing obviously has a large effect on pellet quality as well. When mash feed passes through the conditioner, it is exposed to high pressure steam. This steam provides the heat and moisture required for starch gelatinisation, particles adhesion, feed semi-digestion, and feed pathogens damage. The steam temperature and the time that mash feed stays in the conditioner have major influence on the durability of the produced pellets. Conditioning the feed at a temperature of 80° C is sufficient to produce good quality pellets. The minimum time that feed should stay in the conditioning tube to produce durable pellets is 30 seconds. Long time conditioners, in which the feed can stay in the conditioner for about 3-4 minutes, can be used to improve pellet stickiness.


Thicker dies have positive impact on pellet durability


Also die/roll specifications should be kept in mind. Pellets are produced via roll pressing of the hot mash against metal die. Thicker dies (long die channels) have a positive impact on pellet durability due to increasing the friction time between feed particles and die wall with subsequent more starch gelatinisation. Most of starch gelatinisation occurs when feed passes through the dies. A similar result can be obtained by using small hole dies. This means that dies of 60 mm thickness are better than those of 50 or 40 mm thickness, and that dies with holes of 3 mm diameter are better than those with holes of 5 mm diameter. However, using thicker or small holes dies have negative impact on pellet throughput. Additionally, increasing the distance between roll and die from 0.1 to 2 mm resulted in an increase in the pellet durability.


The cooler should be taken into consideration.


After leaving the pellet mill, the temperature of the pellets ranges from 70-90° C and the moisture from 15-17%. Proper cooling (via a stream air cooling machine) is required to lower pellet temperature to about 8° C above the ambient temperature, and moisture % to be 12%. The cooling machine can be either a horizontal or vertical type. Quick cooling leads to removal of more moisture and heat from the surface of the pellets than their core, and the resultant pellets will be brittle. On the other hand, prolonged cooling produces very dry pellets that can be exposed to abrasion and can be of low palatability.


Conclusion


Pellet quality can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredients, diet formulation and processing. A good rule of thumb is the pellet quality factor (PQF), that each feed ingredient has. The PQF has a score from 0 to 10, where 0 predicts poor pellet quality and 10 good pellet quality. From experience we know that starch and its gelatinisation is the most important factor for achieving the desired pellet quality. However, recent reports indicated that the positive impact of protein on pellet quality is much more important than that of starch.

USB-C explained: How to get the most from it (and why it keeps getting better) Posted by: ffuutty140 - Yesterday, 09:11 AM - Forum: Forum Rules - No Replies

USB-C explained: How to get the most from it (and why it keeps getting better)


At the office, home or school, USB-C has arrived. We've got tips on how to take advantage of those new ports, along with a peek at the future of data transfer and video.


You've probably noticed something strange about many of the latest phones, tablets and laptops at your company: The familiar rectangular Type-A USB ports are gone, replaced by smaller oblong connectors. USB-C has taken over at work, at home and at school.


While many iPhone and iPad models stick with Apple's proprietary Lightning connector, USB-C is now part and parcel of most laptops, phones and tablets made today. Even the latest MacBooks and Chromebooks are part of the movement to USB-C.


What is USB-C?


USB Type-C, usually referred to as just USB-C, is a relatively new connector for delivering data and power to and from computing devices. Because the USB-C plug is symmetrical, it can be inserted either way, eliminating the frustrations of earlier USB ports and putting it on a par with Apple's reversible Lightning plug.


This alone makes it a hit for me, but USB-C is closely linked to several powerful new technologies, including Thunderbolt and USB Power Delivery, that can change how we think about our gear and working in the office, on the road or at home.


Most USB-C ports are built on the second-generation USB 3.1 data-transfer standard, which can theoretically deliver data at speeds of up to 10Gbps — twice as fast as USB 3.0 and first-gen USB 3.1, which both top out at 5Gbps. The key is to get devices that say "USB 3.1 Rev 2," "USB 3.1 Gen 2," "SuperSpeed USB 10Gbps," or "SuperSpeed+" to get support for the faster spec.


Confusing matters more, the current USB 3.2 standard is mostly a restatement of USB 3.1 specs. For instance, USB 3.2 Gen 1 and 2 are the same as USB 3.1 Gen 1 and 2. The new spec that's actually noteworthy is USB 3.2 Gen 2X2, which has a pair of 10Gbps lanes of data traffic available for a total of 20Gbps. So far, however, it hasn't caught on with device manufacturers, so it's hard to find it on any devices in the wild. That might change in the coming year as new controller chips come out.


To make sure the data gets through at higher speeds, always get high-quality cables. They will often have the SuperSpeed logo and a "10" on them to show they're capable of moving 10Gbps. The good news is that there's a good chance that this spaghetti bowl of cable standards could disappear with the next rev of the USB spec with a universal USB cable. More on that later.


Speed, power, and video delivery


A big bonus is that on many laptops and desktops, the USB-C specification also supports Intel's Thunderbolt 3 data-transfer technology. A USB-C port equipped with Thunderbolt 3 can push data speeds to a theoretical limit of 40Gbps. To show how far we've come, that's four times faster than USB 3.1 and more than 3,000 times faster than the original USB 1 spec of 12Mbps.


With increased data-transfer speeds comes the ability to push video over the same connection. USB-C's Alternate Mode (or "Alt Mode" for short) for video enables adapters to output video from that same USB-C port to HDMI, DisplayPort, VGA and other types of video connectors on displays, TVs and projectors. It pays huge dividends for the ultramobile among us by allowing many recent phones and tablets, such as the Samsung Galaxy Tab S7+ and Note and Tab 6 systems, to directly plug into a monitor at home or a projector in the office.


What's more, USB-C supports the USB Power Delivery (USB PD) specification. A USB 2.0 port can deliver just 2.5 watts of power, about enough to charge a phone, slowly. USB 3.1 ups this figure to about 15 watts. But USB PD can deliver up to 100 watts of power, more than six times what USB 3.1 can. This opens up the potential for laptop-powered projectors based on USB-C, but today it is mostly used for high-power chargers and external battery packs.


Next up: USB4


With USB-C accepted as the de facto connector today, the next step is USB4. It can move up to 40Gbps, provide at least 15 watts of power for accessories, and support two 4K displays or a single 8K display. To its credit, USB4 will continue with the small oblong connector that USB-C brought to the party and will work with existing devices, including USB 2.0 ones. (You will need the right adapter for devices without a USB-C port, though.)


Behind the scenes, USB4 uses the Thunderbolt 4 spec. It sets up bidirectional lanes of data that should help things like videoconferencing, which require two-way data flow to prevent congestion and jams. In addition to extra security to prevent a hack attack, Thunderbolt 4 will be compatible with Thunderbolt 3 devices, like docking stations and External Graphics Processing Units (eGPUs). It includes dynamic data flow that is adjusted to suit the devices, so older devices won't slow down newer ones.


On the downside, you'll need a Thunderbolt 4 cable to make it work, but there's a potential bonus: all Thunderbolt 4 cables will be able to be used on anything from USB 2 (with adapter) through USB4 systems. This will make it as close to a universal data cable as exists today. They'll be available in 2-meter lengths (about 6? feet), more than twice the standard 0.8-meter length of current USB-C cables. The key to look for when shopping is that they will have the iconic Thunderbolt lightning icon and a 4 on the plug.


The USB4/Thunderbolt 4 spec is built into Intel's 11th-generation Tiger Lake processors, although the company and others will have standalone USB4 controller chips. The first computers with Thunderbolt 4 ports might appear in late 2020 and devices that plug into them early the next year.


Making USB-C work for you


In the here and now, you'll need to make some changes and buy some accessories to take full advantage of USB-C. This guide can help ease the transition by showing what you can do with USB-C and what you'll need to make it work.


Be careful, because not all USB-C devices support all of the latest USB-C specs. For instance, just about every USB-C flash drive supports the earlier USB 3.1 Rev 1 protocol, some tablets and phones don't support Alt Mode video, and we are in the early days of USB Power Delivery, with few devices going beyond 40 or 60 watts. In other words, read the spec sheet carefully so you know what you're getting before you buy.


These tools, tips and DIY projects can help make the transition to a USB-C world easier.


Make a USB-C travel kit


The good news is that USB-C ports can be used with most older USB 2, 3.0 and 3.1 accessories. The bad news is that you'll need the right adapters and cables, and so far, I haven't seen a complete kit available. I've made my own USB-C survival kit that has six key cables and adapters inside an old zippered case.


Find the right power adapter and cable for your Mac notebook


Learn which power adapter, cable, and plug works with your Mac notebook computer.


Power adapters for Mac notebooks are available in 29W, 30W, 45W, 60W, 61W, 85W, 87W, and 96W varieties. You should use the appropriate wattage power adapter for your Mac notebook. You can use a compatible higher wattage power adapter without issue, but it won't make your computer charge faster or operate differently. If you use a power adapter that is lower in wattage than the adapter that came with your Mac, it won't provide enough power to your computer.


Mac notebooks that charge via USB-C come with an Apple USB-C Power Adapter with detachable AC plug (or duckhead), and a USB-C Charge Cable. 


Mac notebooks that charge via MagSafe come with an AC adapter with MagSafe connector and detachable AC plug, and an AC cable.


Make sure you're using the correct USB-C charge cable and bluetooth glasses


For the best charging experience, you should use the USB-C charge cable that comes with your Mac notebook. If you use a higher wattage USB-C cable, your Mac will still charge normally. USB-C cables rated for 29W or 30W will work with any USB-C power adapter, but won't provide enough power when connected to a power adapter that is more than 61W, such as the 96W USB-C Power Adapter.


You can verify that you're using the correct version of the Apple USB-C Charge Cable with your Mac notebook and its USB-C AC Adapter. The cable's serial number is printed on its external housing, next to the words Designed by Apple in California. Assembled in China. 


If the first three characters of the serial number are C4M or FL4, the cable is for use with an Apple USB-C Power Adapter up to 61W.


If the first three characters of the serial number are DLC, CTC, FTL, or G0J, the cable is for use with an Apple USB-C Power Adapter up to 100W.


If the cable says Designed by Apple in California. Assembled in China but has no serial number, you might be eligible for a replacement USB-C charge cable.

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